Cardiac Signs and Symptoms shows you how to recognize abnormal heart sounds, such as an S3 and S4, and murmurs; determine their probable causes; and intervene quickly and appropriately.
-the best place to listen for an S3 or S4, how these sounds develop, and how to distinguish them from split heart sounds.
-which other signs and symptoms to look for if you detect an S3 sound in a patient with chronic heart failure.
-how an S4 can result from increased resistance to ventricular filling--and hear what it sounds like.
-how proper patient positioning and stethoscope placement can ensure accurate assessment of murmurs and other abnormal heart sounds.
-how to characterize a murmur's intensity, pitch, quality, shape, and duration.
...and much, much more.
-- Blanchard & Loeb website.